Diabetes Risk Assessment

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DIABETES PREVENTION PLAN

Role of Exercise in Diabetes

Regular activity is a key part of managing diabetes. When you are active, your cells become more sensitive to insulin cells and also remove glucose. The food you eat gets digested and broken down into a sugar which your body’s cells can use. So, exercising consistently can lower blood glucose.

Regular physical activity also lowers blood pressure, risk for heart disease and stroke, increases your energy for daily activities, helps you sleep better, relieves stress, reduces symptoms of depression and improves quality of life.

Benefits of Abdominal Obesity Reduction in Diabetes

Obesity (BMI – 30 or greater) is believed to account for 80-85% of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly if you have excess weight around your tummy.

Studies suggest that abdominal fat causes fat cells to releases ‘pro-inflammatory’ chemicals, which can make the body less sensitive to the insulin by disrupting the function of insulin responsive cells and their ability to respond to insulin. This is known as insulin resistance – a major trigger for type 2 diabetes.

Obesity also triggers changes to the body’s metabolism causing fat tissue to release fat molecules into the blood, which can affect insulin responsive cells and lead to reduced insulin sensitivity. By reducing your body weight, by even a small amount, can help improve your body’s insulin sensitivity and lower your risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic conditions.

Nutrition in Diabetes Prevention

Intake of saturated fat is associated with high blood sugar, poor insulin action, gestational diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.

In contrast, a higher intake of dietary fiber, particularly in the form of fruits and vegetables, results in lower blood sugar levels following meals. High–fiber diets contain micronutrients important in regulation of blood sugar, including magnesium and vitamin E.

The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated that dietary changes designed to reduce body weight, combined with regular exercise, can significantly reduce the risk for type II diabetes.

Diagnostic Tests in Diabetes

Casual/Random Plasma Glucose Test

In this test, blood sugar is tested without regard to the time since the person’s last meal. A glucose level greater than 200 mg/dL may indicate diabetes, especially if the test is repeated at a later time and shows similar results.

Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

This test is the preferred method for diagnosing diabetes. Normal fasting blood glucose or blood sugar is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Some people have a normal fasting blood sugar reading, but their blood sugar rapidly rises as they eat. These people may have impaired glucose intolerance. The oral glucose tolerance test diagnoses such patients. It can also be performed to diagnose prediabetes.

Hemoglobin A1c Test

The hemoglobin A1c test (HbA1c), determines how well your diabetes is being controlled. This diabetes test provides an average of your blood sugar control over a six- to 12-week period. HbA1c level of equal to or greater than 6.5% is diagnostic of diabetes.

Other Tests

It’s important for diabetics to have an eye exam at least once a year to detect early signs of retinopathy.

A foot exam once or twice a year is also imperative to detect decreased circulation and sores that may not be healing.

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